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  The dukes of Burgundy  
Claus Sluter The Well of Moses

After the death of the last of the Capetian dukes, Philippe de Rouvres, on 21 November 1361, the succession was disputed between Jean le Bon, king of France and Charles le Mauvais, king of Navarre. Of these at least the latter merited his title in the eyes of France and Burgundy.

The devastations of the English under Edward III in the vicinity of Flavigny and Semur, "as if", wrote Joseph Calmette, "they had set themselves the task of making the duchy a hotbed of anglophobie", had been abetted by the king of Navarre. Although technically his claim to the ducal coronet was the better, neither the French nor the Burgundians were prepared to support his candidature. The death of Philippe de Rouvres was even kept a secret while the negotiations were taking place. But although the title of duke of Burgundy was assumed by the king of France, there was no annexation. Burgundy retained its independent status.

Two years later Jean le Bon conferred the dukedom on his youngest son, whose intrepid behaviour at the battle of Poitiers had earned the title of Philippe le Hardi.

Thus was inaugurated the dynasty of the Valois who were to be acclaimed as " the four great dukes of Burgundy ". They were :

Philippe le Hardi (1364-I404) [Philip the Bold]
Jean sans Peur (1404-1419) [John the Fearless]
Philippe le Bon (1419-1467) [Philip the Good]
Charles le Téméraire (1467-1477) [Charles the Bold].

With the death of the last-named at the siege of Nancy the line was extinguished and Burgundy once more reverted to the Crown of France. This time it was not to be separated.

  Jean le Bon (Musée du Louvre)